Advances in Colloid and Interface Science (v.137, #2)

The role of particles in stabilising foams and emulsions by Timothy N. Hunter; Robert J. Pugh; George V. Franks; Graeme J. Jameson (57-81).
The use of particles as foam and emulsion stabilising species, with or without surfactants, has received great interest in recent years. The majority of work has studied the effects of particles as stabilisers in emulsion systems, but recent successes has widened consideration into foams, where industries such as flotation and food processing have encountered the effects of particle stabilisation for many years. This review seeks to clarify studies into emulsions, highlighting new research in this area, and relate similarities and differences to foam systems. Past research has focused on defining the interaction mechanisms of stability, such as principles of attachment energies, particle–particle forces at the interface and changes to the interfilm, with a view to ascertain conditions giving optimum stability. Studied conditions include effects of particle contact angle, aggregation formations, concentration, size and interactions of other species (i.e. surfactant). Mechanisms can be complex, but overall the principle of particles creating a steric barrier to coalescence, is a straitforward basis of interaction. Much research in emulsions can be applied to foam systems, however evidence would suggest foam systems are under a number of additional constraints, and the stability ‘window’ for particles is smaller, in terms of size and contact angle ranges. Also, because of increased density differences and interfilm perturbations in foam systems, retardation of drainage is often as important to stability as inhibiting coalescence.
Keywords: Foams; Froths; Emulsions; Stabilized by particles; Mechanisms; Surfactant free; Thin films interactions; Bubbles; Oil droplets;

Water adsorption on carbons — Critical review of the most popular analytical approaches by Sylwester Furmaniak; Piotr A. Gauden; Artur P. Terzyk; Gerhard Rychlicki (82-143).
The purpose of the current study is to present the state of art in the field of analytical description of water sorption on carbons. We discuss the most important and promising models proposed recently (for example by Mahle; Talu and Meunier; and Malakhov and Volkov) as well as some older theoretical models inspired by the pioneering ideas proposed in the papers of Dubinin, Serpinsky, Barton, D'Arcy, Watt, Do and Do and others. The applicability, advantages, and defects of all these analytical formulas are pointed out and some new approaches in this field are presented. The special attention is paid to the finite adsorption space and the possible involvement of partial chemisorption, i.e. the existence of various types of the hydrophilic centres. Since the calculation of isosteric enthalpy from an adsorption equation, and the comparison of theoretical enthalpy plot with the values measured calorimetrically, is the fundamental condition for the verification of the correctness of an adsorption model, for all considered models we show the corresponding adsorption enthalpy equations. The validity of all mentioned above models is verified for the data measured for five water-activated carbon systems. Finally, a summary of obtained results and some perspectives and suggestions for the description of experimental data are presented. From the analysis of experimental data it is seen that developed recently- the heterogeneous Do and Do model is probably the most successful for the simultaneous description of water adsorption and enthalpy of adsorption results.
Keywords: Activated carbon; Water adsorption; Chemisorption; Hydrophilic centres; Primary adsorption sites; Modelling; Microporosity; Enthalpy of adsorption; Calorimetry;

Tharwat Tadros by Brian Vincent (144-149).