Advances in Colloid and Interface Science (v.119, #2-3)

In this review article, the authors present up-to-date developments on experimental, modeling and field studies on the role of subsurface colloidal fines on contaminant transport in saturated porous media. It is a complex phenomenon in porous media involving several basic processes such as colloidal fines release, dispersion stabilization, migration and fines entrapment/plugging at the pore constrictions and adsorption at solid/liquid interface. The effects of these basic processes on the contaminant transport have been compiled. Here the authors first present the compilation on in situ colloidal fines sources, release, stabilization of colloidal dispersion and migration which are a function of physical and chemical conditions of subsurface environment and finally their role in inorganic and organic contaminants transport in porous media. The important aspects of this article are as follows: (i) it gives not only complete compilation on colloidal fines-facilitated contaminant transport but also reviews the new role of colloidal fines in contaminant retardation due to plugging of pore constrictions. This plugging phenomenon also depends on various factors such as concentration of colloidal fines, superficial velocity and bead-to-particle size ratio. This plugging-based contaminant transport can be used to develop containment technique in soil and groundwater remediation. (ii) It also presents the importance of critical salt concentration (CSC), critical ionic strength for mixed salt, critical shear stressor critical particle concentration (CPC) on in situ colloidal fines release and migration and consequently their role on contaminant transport in porous media. (iii) It also reviews another class of colloidal fines called biocolloids and their transport in porous media. Finally, the authors highlight the future research based on their critical review on colloid-associated contaminant transport in saturated porous media.
Keywords: Subsurface colloids; Colloid-associated contaminant transport; Biocolloids; Plugging; Saturated porous media;

Recent developments on ion-exchange membranes and electro-membrane processes by R.K. Nagarale; G.S. Gohil; Vinod K. Shahi (97-130).
Rapid growth of chemical and biotechnology in diversified areas fuels the demand for the need of reliable green technologies for the down stream processes, which include separation, purification and isolation of the molecules. Ion-exchange membrane technologies are non-hazardous in nature and being widely used not only for separation and purification but their application also extended towards energy conversion devices, storage batteries and sensors etc. Now there is a quite demand for the ion-exchange membrane with better selectivities, less electrical resistance, high chemical, mechanical and thermal stability as well as good durability. A lot of work has been done for the development of these types of ion-exchange membranes during the past twenty-five years. Herein we have reviewed the preparation of various types of ion-exchange membranes, their characterization and applications for different electro-membrane processes. Primary attention has been given to the chemical route used for the membrane preparation. Several general reactions used for the preparation of ion-exchange membranes were described. Methodologies used for the characterization of these membranes and their applications were also reviewed for the benefit of readers, so that they can get all information about the ion-exchange membranes at one platform.Although there are large number of reports available regarding preparations and applications of ion-exchange membranes more emphasis were predicted for the usefulness of these membranes or processes for solving certain type of industrial or social problems. More efforts are needed to bring many products or processes to pilot scale and extent their applications.
Keywords: Ion-exchange membranes; Charged membranes; Ionomers; Electro-membrane processes; Electrodialysis;

Importance of physical vs. chemical interactions in surface shear rheology by Peter A. Wierenga; Hans Kosters; Maarten R. Egmond; Alphons G.J. Voragen; Harmen H.J. de Jongh (131-139).
The stability of adsorbed protein layers against deformation has in literature been attributed to the formation of a continuous gel-like network. This hypothesis is mostly based on measurements of the increase of the surface shear elasticity with time. For several proteins this increase has been attributed to the formation of intermolecular disulfide bridges between adsorbed proteins. However, according to an alternative model the shear elasticity results from the low mobility of the densely packed proteins. To contribute to this discussion, the actual role of disulfide bridges in interfacial layers is studied. Ovalbumin was thiolated with S-acetylmercaptosuccinic anhydride (S-AMSA), followed by removal of the acetylblock on the sulphur atom, resulting in respectively blocked (SX) and deblocked (SH) ovalbumin variants. This allows comparison of proteins with identical amino acid sequence and similar globular packing and charge distribution, but different chemical reactivity. The presence and reactivity of the introduced, deblocked sulfhydryl groups were confirmed using the sulfhydryl–disulfide exchange index (SEI). Despite the reactivity of the introduced sulfhydryl groups measured in solution, no increase in the surface shear elasticity could be detected with increasing reactivity. This indicates that physical rather than chemical interactions determine the surface shear behaviour. Further experiments were performed in bulk solution to study the conditions needed to induce covalent aggregate formation. From these studies it was found that mere concentration of proteins (to 200 mg/mL, equivalent to a surface concentration of around 2 mg/m2) is not sufficient to induce significant aggregation to form a continuous network. In view of these results, it was concluded that the adsorbed layer should not be considered a gelled network of aggregated material (in analogy with three-dimensional gels formed from heating protein solutions). Rather, it would appear that the adsorbed proteins form a highly packed system of proteins with net-repulsive interactions.
Keywords: Ovalbumin; Chemical modification; Thiolation; Air–water interface; Surface rheology;