Advances in Colloid and Interface Science (v.113, #1)

Recent developments in manufacturing emulsions and particulate products using membranes by Goran T. Vladisavljević; Richard A. Williams (1-20).
Membrane emulsification (ME) is a relatively new technique for the highly controlled production of particulates. This review focuses on the recent developments in this area, ranging from the production of simple oil-in-water (O/W) or water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions to multiple emulsions of different types, solid-in-oil-in-water (S/O/W) dispersions, coherent solids (silica particles, solid lipid microspheres, solder metal powder) and structured solids (solid lipid microcarriers, gel microbeads, polymeric microspheres, core-shell microcapsules and hollow polymeric microparticles). Other emerging technologies that extend the capabilities into different membrane materials and operation methods (such as rotating membranes, repeated membrane extrusion of coarsely pre-emulsified feeds) are introduced. The results of experimental work carried out by cited researchers in the field together with those of the current authors are presented in a tabular form in a rigorous and systematic manner. These demonstrate a wide range of products that can be manufactured using different membrane approaches. Opportunities for creation of new and novel entities are highlighted for low throughput applications (medical diagnostics, healthcare) and for large-scale productions (consumer and personal products).
Keywords: Membrane emulsification; Microchannel emulsification; Microencapsulation; Multiple emulsions; Polymer microspheres;

Interfacial dynamics and structure of surfactant layers by Boris Zhmud; Fredrik Tiberg (21-42).
The present article provides current opinion on studies of the interfacial dynamics, adsorption, and structure of surfactant layers. The physical principles and applications of physicochemical methods such as tensiometry, ellipsometry, photon correlation spectroscopy, and neutron reflectivity techniques, as well as relevant theoretical aspects related to the adsorption and desorption kinetics, interfacial structure development, wetting enhancement, and the effect of adsorbed surfactant films of the interfacial dynamics, are covered in detail. In order to make the text as self-contained as possible, essential mathematical derivations are given demonstrating how raw data, such as ellipsometric angles or neutron reflectivity, are transformed into sought layer characteristics, such as thickness or density.

The modification of a surface at the molecular level with precise control of the building blocks generates an integrated molecular system. This field has progressed rapidly in recent years through the use of self-assembled monolayer (SAM) interfaces. Recent developments on surface-initiated chemical reactions, functionalization, and graft polymerization on SAM interfaces are emphasized in the present review. A number of surface modifications by grafting are reviewed. The grafting of polyaniline on a glass surface, previously modified with a silane self-assembled monolayer (SAM), is examined in detail for both planar and 3-D systems, such as fibers, nanoparticles, and even polymer patterned surfaces. We also discuss the graft polymerization of water-soluble polymers on the surface of silicon nanoparticles, which generate stable aqueous colloidal solutions and have numerous applications. Finally, we compare and review some surface-modification techniques on the surfaces of polymers, such as two-solvent entrapment, polymer blending, and chemical grafting, which improve their biocompatibility.
Keywords: Self-assembled monolayer; Functionalization; Graft polymerization; Glass surface; Silicon nanoparticles; Two-solvent entrapment; Polymer blending; Chemical grafting;