Advances in Colloid and Interface Science (v.110, #1-2)

Anatoly Ivanovich Rusanov by Boris A Noskov (1-3).

Various approaches to modify biomaterial surfaces for improving hemocompatibility by Chun Mao; Yongzhi Qiu; Haibo Sang; Hua Mei; Aiping Zhu; Jian Shen; Sicong Lin (5-17).
In this paper, the mechanism of thrombus formation on the surface of polymeric materials and the various approaches of modifying biomaterial surfaces to improve their hemocompatibility are reviewed. Moreover, the blood compatibility of the cellulose membrane grafted with O-butyrylchitosan (OBCS) by using a radiation grafting technique was studied. Surface analysis of grafted cellulose membrane was verified by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), which confirmed that OBCS was successfully grafted onto the cellulose membrane surfaces. Blood compatibility of the grafted cellulose membranes was evaluated by platelet rich plasma (PRP) contacting experiments and protein adsorption experiments using blank cellulose membranes as the control. The blood compatibility of OBCS grafted cellulose membranes is better than that of blank cellulose membranes. These results suggest that the photocrosslinkable chitosan developed here has the potential of serving in blood-contacting applications in medical use.
Keywords: Thrombus; Surface modification; O-butyrylchitosan; Cellulose; Blood compatibility;

Due to the presence and significance of alumina in the natural aquatic environment and its increasing application in drinking and wastewater purification, the knowledge of the structure of alumina and its possible interactions with organic and inorganic compounds in water are of great importance. This is of particular importance in both the understanding of natural aquatic environment processes and efficient industrial applications. The chemistry of alumina reactions in water is complex. The adsorption ability of alumina towards organic and inorganic compounds might be influenced by several factors such as: surface characteristics of the adsorbent (surface area, density, pore volume, porosity, pore size distribution, pHPZC as well as mechanical strength and purity), pH of the solution, ionic strength, composition of water and the physicochemical properties of adsorbates. The aim of this paper is to give a brief review of the properties of alumina and its reactivity with organic and inorganic compounds present in aqueous solutions. It also summarises the usage of alumina and alumina supported phases in water treatment technology.
Keywords: Alumina; Alumina supported phases; Adsorption; Water; Water treatment; Catalytic ozonation; Catalytic wet air oxidation;

The use of an inorganic phase in water-in-oil microemulsions has received considerable attention for preparing metal particles. This is a new technique, which allows preparation of ultrafine metal particles within the size range 5 nm<particle diameter<50 nm. This article presents a review of the current literature in the field of particle preparation of several metals such as silver, copper, cadmium, cobalt, nickel, cadmium and gold in the inverse microemulsion systems. The reactant metal salts and reducing agents are mostly soluble in water and therefore the nucleation of metal particles proceeds in the water pools of the microemulsion. The rate of particle nucleation is a function of the percolation degree of microemulsion droplets. Besides a short introduction into some aspects of the microemulsion types and formation, we mainly focus on the kinetics of metallic particle formation. Effects of stabilizer (emulsifier) type and concentration and the type of continuous phase, reducing agent and additive on the particle formation are summarized and evaluated. The influence of several other parameters such as temperature, the incident light, the nature of metal salts and reaction conditions are also reviewed. These results indicate that the nature of the stabilizer emulsifier, the surface activity of additives and the colloidal stability of microemulsion droplets play decisive role on the particle size and distribution during the preparation of metal particles.
Keywords: Water-in-oil microemulsion; Metal particles; Particle nucleation and growth;