Understanding how the artemisinin works could help in efforts to create yet more effective drugs against malaria that are less prone to resistance. Artemisinin emerged from Chinese herbal medicine as a potential treatment for malaria and has proved itself efficacious in combination therapy. It was thought to work by forming heme-derived Fe(II) and C-centered radicals through its unusual peroxide lactone group. New research, however, suggests that the redox-active artemisinin molecule interferes with redox enzymes important for the malaria parasite through its ability to undergo both one-electron transfer and two-electron reduction processes. Several flavoenzymes are thought to be possible targets for follow-up drug research.