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Polish Journal of Chemical Technology (v.11, #1)

Biodegradation of selected substances used in liquid fertilizers as an element of Life Cycle Assessment by Magdalena Borowiec; Marta Huculak; Krystyna Hoffmann; Józef Hoffmann; (pp. 1-3).
The results of laboratory investigations into the aerobic biodegradation of chelating compounds in water medium under static test conditions are presented. It was found that nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) and glutamic acid diacetic acid (GLDA) are more readily biodegradable than ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) commonly used in the production of liquid fertilizers. Biodegradation was evaluated on the basis of compound decay and changes in COD.

Keywords: Life Cycle Assessment; chelating compounds; biodegradation

Plant oil derivates as fuels by Ferenc Farkas; (pp. 4-7).

The dependence of the Hungarian economy on energy imports has already reached that degree, which is forecast in the EU for the average of the community by 2020.

The total quantity of the biomass in Hungary is 350 - 360 mtons, out of which 105 - 110 mtons reproduces itself annualy. The energy content of the yearly produced biomass is as high as 1185 PJ, which is 5% more than the annual energy consumption. The renewable energies which are produced by agriculture could cover 10% of the energy demand of Hungary for a short term.

At our College Faculty in Mezőtúr we have been dealing with the application issues of vegetable oil derivates as fuels since 1990.

Keywords: renewable energies; climate protection; dependence on energy imports; Kyoto targets; biofuels

Application of flotation in the decontamination of sediments from the Cerny prikop stream by Peter Fečko; Iva Janakova; Helena Raclavská; Barbara Tora; (pp. 8-11).
The stream Cerny prikop is located in the Ostrava city districts of Marianske Hory, Moravska Ostrava and Privoz. This locality belongs to the most polluted areas in Ostrava as it is unbearably polluted by the Coking Plant of Jan Sverma, company BorsodChem MCHZ (the chemical plant), City Waste Water Treatment Plant and a number of other companies in the given territory, all the way to its mouth to the Odra River. Moreover, the area is also affected by the construction of the D 47 motorway. The sediments of Cerny prikop represent a significant ecological burden within the Ostrava urban area. They are contaminated by a wide range of organic pollutants which have never been exactly identified.

Keywords: flotation; decontamination; Cerný prikop stream

Emission of the odour substances from fertilizer industry by Józef Hoffmann; Grażyna Gryglewicz; Krystyna Hoffmann; Stanisław Gryglewicz; Wiktor Okereke; Jakub Skut; (pp. 12-15).
Mineral fertilizers are indispensable for the intensification of plant production in agriculture. This process can cause a significant odour nuisance for the environment due to organic compounds content in apatites and phosphorites converted into fertilizers. The following chemical compounds are emitted to the gas phase among others: hydrogen sulphide, organic sulphides and (methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, butyl) disulphides, chain hydrocarbons, organic oils, waxes and carboxylic acids. A method using gas chromatography analysis with the mass detector (TD-GS-MS), to determine trace concentrations, was developed and tested for the assessment of odour nuisant substances emission from these processes. Application of additional thermal desorber to enable the intense desorption of the investigated organic compounds (previously adsorbed on classical sorbents) in the industrial research has been taken into consideration. In effect it facilitates the accumulating substances to be analyzed at short time interval providing identifying measurements. The technique has been verified during the investigation of the substances emitted in fertilizers processes at Maroko phosphorite decomposition. The organic sulfur compounds, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons have been detected.

Keywords: odours; mineral fertilizers

Environmental aspects of feed phosphates production by Józef Hoffmann; Krystyna Hoffmann; Magdalena Borowiec; Marta Huculak; (pp. 16-19).
The risks resulting from the selected feed phosphates application in animal nutrition were analyzed. The results of the analyses of the fodder phosphates obtained in laboratory conditions were presented, including the toxic and disadvantageous substances with regard to their impact upon the environment.

Keywords: feed phosphates; fluorine; heavy metals

The optimization of low-magnesium zinc concentrate production process by Andrzej Jarosiński; Katarzyna Fela; (pp. 20-23).
In this paper the result of the study on chemical leaching of zinc concentrate with H2SO4 solution was presented. The object of this work was to assess the effect of some parameters such as acid concentration, the leaching agent amount /stoichiometry amount or excess of acid were applied/, reaction time and temperature on the process. The investigation was performed as a active experiment according to Hartley's plan. The process optimisation procedure was based on the fuzzy logic system. Mainly, the parameters such as magnesium leaching efficiency and zinc losses were taken into account. It was stated that the highest magnesium leaching efficiency of 77.8% with low Zn-losses was reached when H2SO4 solution concentration was 2.5% for 20%-excess of acid, at temperature 25°C and process time of 1 hour.

Keywords: Zn-concentrate; magnesium removal; chemical treatment; acid leaching

Bio-chemical methods in wasteprocessing by Maria Kušnierová; Vladimír Šepelák; Ol'ga Šestinová; (pp. 24-27).
The mineral biotechnologies, the domain of which is primary raw material processing, are increasingly diversifying into some metallurgical areas. The presented results of the research carried out with metallurgical wastes from aluminium production, lead waste remaking and desulphurization zinc-ferrite-based sorbents regeneration prove the possibility of the use of bio-chemical methods. The results obtained and the proposed technologies applying bio-chemical processes enable a complex processing and use of waste sludge from aluminium production and the use of wastes from matte-based copper production for the production of hematite pigments. The use of microorganisms in the desulphurization sorbent regeneration processes allows to increase sorbent's efficiency and its repeated recycling.

Keywords: Bioleaching metallurgical wastes; pigment; sorbent

The possibility of implementation of spent iron catalyst for ammonia synthesis by Ewa A. Ekiert; Rafał Pelka; Krzysztof Lubkowski; Walerian Arabczyk; (pp. 28-33).
An iron catalyst used in the ammonia synthesis is pyrophoric in its reactive, reduced form. Before further use the catalyst has to be passivated. Results of the research on the iron catalyst - its passivation, re-use as a catalyst in other processes and implementation as a substrate to obtain new nanocrystalline materials have been presented in the paper.

Keywords: spent iron catalyst; passivation; carburization

Assesment of the usability of Mg(OH)2 obtained from the solution after sphalerite leaching for the winning of polyetylene composition by Kinga Pielichowska; Sylwester Żelazny; (pp. 34-36).
In this work obtaining of magnesium hydroxide from the solutions obtained during magnesium removal from zinc concentrates is presented. The received product was used for the winning of composites from polyethylene (PE) using extrusion and injection methods. The obtained composites were tested in terms of thermal stability (TG, DTG) as well as combustibility (LOI and thermovision camera). The preliminary results indicate the beneficial effect of the decrease of PE quality by magnesium hydroxide obtained by means of solution purification and precipitation of Mg(OH)2 by means of soda lye.

Keywords: Magnesium hydroxide; polyethylene

Evaluation of the biomedical properties of hydroxyapatite obtained from bone waste by Agnieszka Sobczak; Anna Kida; Zygmunt Kowalski; Zbigniew Wzorek; (pp. 37-43).
The method of obtaining hydroxyapatite by thermal treatment of deproteinised and defatted bone pulp called bone sludge was presented. The products of the calcining process were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The calcium content was determined with titration, whereas the contents of total phosphorus - with a spectrophotomertric method. X-ray investigations confirmed that hydroxyapatite was the main component of the calcining products in the calcining process. The FT-IR spectra confirmed that all organic substances were removed during the calcining process. On the basis of the research into physiological liquids the propensity to resorption of hydroxyapatite bioceramic was evaluated.

Keywords: bone sludge; hydroxyapatite; calcining; incubation; SBF; Ringer liquid

In vitro tests of dense hydroxyapatite materials by Agnieszka Sobczak; Anna Kida; Zygmunt Kowalski; Zbigniew Wzorek; (pp. 44-49).
The paper presents the results of the calcining process of deproteinised and defatted bone pulp called bone sludge. The calcining process was performed in two stages. The first step of the calcining process was realized at the temperature of 600°C in a rotary kiln. In the second stage the obtained bone ashes were calcined at five different temperatures from 650°C to 950°C for 2 hours in a chamber kiln and in air atmosphere. The products of the calcining process were characterized by the XRD method. Calcium content was determined by titration whereas the contents of total phosphorus and acid-soluble phosphorus - by the spectrophotometric method. The X-ray analysis confirmed that hydroxyapatite is the main component of the calcining products. Calcium and phosphorus contents were kept at the level of 40% and 17.5%, respectively, which corresponded to the Ca/P ratio of not stechiometric hydroxyapatite. In vitro studies, in the simulated body fluid, Ringer liquid and distilled water were realised. The measurements of pH value of SBF and Ringer fluid were realized. Additionally electrical conductivity as well as pH for distilled water where conducted. The goal of these tests was to evaluate chemical durability of dense hydroxyapatite materials.

Keywords: hydroxyapatite; dense materials; in vitro tests; incubation

Preparations and production technologies of cleansing milks based on cenosphere obtained from flying ashes by Marian W. Sułek; Tomasz Wasilewski; Emilia Klimaszewska; (pp. 50-54).
Application of cenosphere obtained from flying ashes as effective abrasive for cleansing milks was analyzed in the paper. Preparations and production technology of ten milks with various contents of cenosphere (from 2% to 20%) were designed. The products were tested to determine their most important usable properties. The efficiency of application and dispersion, cleansing ability, ability to emulsify fatty soils and destructing activity, measured as polish of surfaces, were analyzed. Selected trade products were tested analogously. The results obtained show that cenosphere can be a good replacement of abrasives that are widely used. The cenosphere-based products revealed comparable usable properties to the trade products (or even better). It is probable that producers of cleansers will pay their attention to this waste, which will bring profits to the natural environment.

Keywords: cenosphere; household products; scouring milk; quality

Synthesis of glue used for the purpose of sticking plastics on the base of Cyklopol process waste fraction by Otmar Z. Vogt; Elżbieta L. Vogt; Witold J. Charyasz; (pp. 55-60).

The utilization of monohydric alcohols waste fraction from the Cyklopol process was studied. On the basis of this fraction the solvent, which mainly contains acetic acid esters, was synthesized. Tests of the application of the obtained solvent as a base of glue for plastics were carried out and it was found out that it could be used to stick PMMA together. In the case of PS, PET, PC or PVC slightly weaker sticking properties of this solvent also occurred. The glue joint characteristics in the case of PMMA were similar to those obtained for the glue joints that were made with the use of the commercially available glue used for this plastic. The additional advantage of our glue is its nice fruity smell.

The obtained results enable us to establish the possibility of waste alcohol fraction management as a raw material for the production of glue for plastic. The esterification method proposed in the work can be a good way of management of waste alcohol fractions naturally occurring during cyclohexanone production.

Keywords: Cyklopol; waste alcohol fraction; glue for plastic

Water purification using a novel reactor with the photoactive refill by Joanna Grzechulska-Damszel; Antoni W. Morawski; (pp. 61-63).
The aim of the presented work was the removal of organic dye, Acid Red 18, from water using a novel reactor with the photoactive refill. Titanium dioxide was immobilized on the base material as a thin layer from the alcoholic suspension followed by thermal stabilization. The prepared coating exhibits high stability in repeated cycles of water treatment. The complete removal of colour was achieved in a relatively short time of 14 hours. The proposed reactor with the photoactive refill solves the problem of the necessity of the replacement of the reactor or parts of the reactor when the photocatalysts activity decreases. In the case of activity drop of the photocatalyst, only the photoactivve refill can be easily replaced.

Keywords: titanium dioxide; photocatalysis; flow reactor; photoactive coating; organic dyes

Synthesis and characteristics of titanium silicalite TS-1, Ti-Beta and Ti-MWW catalysts by Agnieszka Wróblewska; Anna Fajdek; Eugeniusz Milchert; (pp. 64-71).
The synthesis methods of the following titanium-silicalite catalysts: TS-1, Ti-Beta and Ti-MWW were presented. The results of the analyses of the catalysts by XRD, SEM and IR, UV-vis methods were also shown. A brief description of the catalytic performances of these catalysts in the oxidation process of olefins, alkenes, alcohols and aromatic compounds was presented.

Keywords: TS-1; Ti-Beta; Ti-MWW; titanium-silicalite catalysts

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