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Polish Journal of Chemical Technology (v.10, #4)


Photocatalytic hydrogen generation over alkali niobates in the presence of organic compounds by Beata Zielińska; Joanna Sreńscek-Nazzal; Ryszard J. Kaleńczuk; (pp. 1-3).
The photocatalytic efficiency of alkali niobate-based compounds (Li, Na, K) for hydrogen generation has been investigated. The systematic study showed that the highest photocatalytic activity was observed in the case of Na/Nb2O5 catalyst which contained sodium niobate (NaNbO3) phase and that the most efficient electron donor for hydrogen generation was formic acid. In addition, the effect of organic donor (HCOOH) concentration on the amount of the evolved hydrogen was studied.

Keywords: Hydrogen generation; alkali niobates; photocatalysis


Vanadium pentoxide application for the synthesis of NaVO3 in the presence of oxygen by Katarzyna Białowicz; Mieczysław Trypuć; Krzysztof Mazurek; Urszula Kiełkowska; (pp. 4-6).
Investigation was carried out on the optimal conditions of the synthesis of NaVO3 and Cl2 from NaCl and V2O5 in the presence of the atmospheric oxygen. The influence of the excess of NaCl relative to V2O5 was investigated. Also the effect of the quartz sand introduced into the reaction mixture on the yield of the NaVO3 synthesis was determined. The obtained product of synthesis was isolated from the post-reaction mixture.

Keywords: environment; synthesis; parameter identification; unit operations; sodium metavanadate


Precipitation of calcium carbonate in the presence of urea at 293K by Katarzyna Białowicz; Urszula Kiełkowska; Mieczysław Trypuć; (pp. 7-10).
The results of the precipitation of calcium carbonate from waste distillation liquor (DS) from the Solvay method and sodium bicarbonate saturated solution in the presence of urea were presented. The investigation was carried out at 293K. The influence of the time of reagents dosage to the solution of urea on the physicochemical character of obtaining product was studied. The time of reagents dosage: 1, 5, 10, 20, 30 min and the concentration of the urea applied: 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mol/dm3. The granulometric composition, the values of bulk and packing densities and the absorptiveness sorption of water and paraffin oil of the obtaining calcium carbonate were investigated.

Keywords: calcium carbonate; waste distillation liquor (DS); sodium bicarbonate; urea; bulk density; packing density


Plotting of the solubility isotherm for the NH4NO3 + NaVO3 + H2O system by Mieczysław Trypuć; Sebastian Drużyński; Krzysztof Mazurek; (pp. 11-14).
The equilibrium research was performed for the NH4NO3 + NaVO3 + NH4VO3 + NaNO3 + H2O system at 293 and 303 K. The location of the P1 and P2 triple points was determined on the equilibrium plots with the planar projection according to Jänecke method. The maximum yield of the conversion of ammonium nitrate(V) to ammonium vanadate(V) was calculated at P1 points. The results constitute the basis to design further equilibrium experiments aimed to precisely determine the lines separating the areas of the co-crystallization of salts in the investigated system on the equilibrium plots in the oblique projection on a plane according to Jänecke method.

Keywords: SCS method; equilibrium investigation; double exchange; ammonium nitrate(V); ammonium vanadate(V)


Evaluation of waters environment hazard by pulp-mill liquors by Aleksandra Lewkiewicz-Małysa; Elżbieta Konopka; (pp. 15-19).
Pulp-mill waste is very noxious for the primary wood production. The problems of its manageability are correlated with its volume and a considerable degree of pollutions, mainly the organic ones, coming from wood processing. The other main components of waste material are aggressive reagents liberating the cellulose fibers, during washing, classification and the benediction processes. The results of environmental studies covering the superficial water of the pulp-mill impact were presented. The production process factors were assessed owing to the waste concentration and distribution in the water race.

Keywords: chemical paper-pulp; pulp-mill waste; BAT; self-cleaning of waters


Purification of sphalerite concentrate in the chemical and flotation way by Andrzej Jarosiński; (pp. 20-24).
In this paper the results of the investigation of magnesium removal, from zinc concentrate derived from zinc-lead ore enrichment plant, have been presented. The characteristics of the initial concentrate and the occurrence forms of dolomite in this material are estimated. It was found that magnesium is collected in the finest fraction of the initial material. The influence of chemical treatment and flotation on the quality improvement of zinc concentrate is determined. This method permits to obtain zinc concentrate containing below 0,3% Mg and about 0,7% Ca.

Keywords: zinc concentrates; magnesium removal; chemical treatment and flotation


The influence of urea on the K2CO3 and NH4VO3 solubility in the K2CO3 + NH4VO3 + H2O system by Urszula Kiełkowska; (pp. 25-27).
The influence of urea on the vanadium(V) and potassium ion concentrations in the K2CO3 + NH4VO3 + H2O system was determined in the temperature range of 293 K to 313 K. Additionally, the solution density dependence versus the urea concentration was presented. These data are essential for the assessment of optimum operating conditions for the new production process of potassium carbonate.

Keywords: solubility; density; equilibrium; ammonium vanadate(V); potassium carbonate; urea; water


Principles of municipal waste management in Poland and selected regions of Europe by Joanna Kulczycka; Zygmunt Kowalski; (pp. 28-33).
High level of production and consumption in member-countries of the European Union is connected with generating a considerable amount of waste. In individual EU member-countries various methods aiming at decreasing the amount of generated waste are implemented. The current situation in Poland, and the best practical solutions introduced in some European regions have been presented in the paper. These solutions were put in place, mainly to fulfill the EU or country's regulations. The priority of municipal waste management measures is to prevent and minimize its generation. Decisions on preventing waste generation should be made as early as at the stage of product designing and manufacturing. The basic principle of proper municipal waste management is to create a system of regional solutions, which includes all the elements of waste management and relates them to the local conditions.

Keywords: municipal waste management; recycling; landfilling


The influence of leaching solution pH and addition of peroxide hydrogen on the recovery of some components from the used vanadium catalyst with urea solutions by Krzysztof Mazurek; Mieczysław Trypuć; Katarzyna Białowicz; Sebastian Drużyński; (pp. 34-36).
The research was conducted to determine the influence of the pH of the leaching solutions and hydrogen peroxide addition on the efficiency of the recovery of vanadium, potassium and iron compounds from the used vanadium catalyst from the node of oxidation of sulfur dioxide to sulfur trioxide.

Keywords: sulfuric acid; sulfur oxide; urea solutions; used vanadium catalysts; leaching process


Assesment of the usability of Mg(OH)2 obtained from the solution after sphalerite leaching for the winning of polyetylene composition by Kinga Pielichowska; Sylwester Żelazny; (pp. 37-39).
In this work obtaining of magnesium hydroxide from the solutions obtained during magnesium removal from zinc concentrates is presented. The received product was used for the winning of composites from polyethylene (PE) using extrusion and injection methods. The obtained composites were tested in terms of thermal stability (TG, DTG) as well as combustibility (LOI and thermovision camera). The preliminary results indicate the beneficial effect of the decrease of PE quality by magnesium hydroxide obtained by means of solution purification and precipitation of Mg(OH)2 by means of soda lye.

Keywords: Magnesium hydroxide; polyethylene


Recovery of aluminium from multi-component packaging using a fluidised bed reactor by Witold Żukowski; Jerzy Baron; Jadwiga Zabagło; Stanisław Kandefer; Małgorzata Olek; (pp. 40-44).
This study presents the use of fluidised bed combustion to produce thermal energy, aluminium recovery and the reduction of the Tetra Pak and Combibloc packaging waste stream. Fluidisation and the pneumatic transport, which take place in the same apparatus, allow recovering bits of the aluminium foil from the combustion zone. The limited time spent in the high temperature zone leads to a high content of free metal in the solids separated in the ash trap and cyclone. Other solid products are practically chemically inert and may be disposed in a landfill of municipal or inert wastes.

Keywords: fluidisation; combustion; multilayer packaging; thermal energy; recovery of aluminium


Reduction of carbon dioxide emission through the sorption in situ using a fluidised bed reactor by Witold Żukowski; Sylwia Englot; Jerzy Baron; Stanisław Kandefer; Małgorzata Olek; (pp. 45-48).

The paper discusses the possibility of using the reversible reaction CaCO3 ↔ CaO + CO2 for the cyclic capture and release of CO2 directly inside a fluidised bed combustor. This could lead to the lowering of CO2 emissions into the atmosphere, as part of an effort to mitigate the greenhouse effect associated with the rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations resulting from obtaining energy from burning fossil fuels.

An enrichment coefficient E has been introduced and defined as a measure of the production of CO2 (on calcining CaCO3) or its removal (on carbonation of CaO) with respect to the level associated with fuel combustion alone. The observations made on the effect of introducing an additional external stream of CO2 on the efficiency of the chemical capture process have been described. Through an appropriate control of the temperature inside the reactor it is possible to change the value of E over the range [-0.8; 0.8]. This implies that up to about 80% of the CO2 derived from the fuel can be temporarily retained within the bed and released later, at a higher concentration. The proposed method of burning fuel in a chemically active fluidised bed could be an available method leading to CO2 isolation from the flue gases and leading to its eventual sequestration.


Keywords: fluidisation; combustion; CO2 sequestration


Long-term interaction of coal combustion by-product with water by Maria Żygadło; Magdalena Woźniak; (pp. 49-52).

A terrestrial disposal of the fly ash has been regarded as a potential source of contamination due to the enrichment and surface association of trace elements in ash particles. In laboratory conditions the leaching of soluble components existing in ashes proceeds in a different way than in land deposits.

On the landfill site coal combustion by-products are under the pressure of atmosphere agents, especially water, sun and rain activity (drying and wetting alternately), freeze/thaw (in cold climate) and gases included in the air. Also the time of exposition is an important parameter.

In the presented experiment the observed dynamics of ash solubility over a long period of time provides the evidence that in the ash-water system, a variety of precipitation processes dominate the solubility of solid mass. Simulating the weathering by the freeze/thaw test approximates the effectuated changes in ash particles structure.

The leaching of a particular ash component depends on reactions in the ash-water systems.

Solidification by compaction of the material is often favoured because of the cementitious properties of ashes being in contact with water. Secondary hydrated minerals such as ettringite, portlandite and calcite are formed during a contact with water. Calcium -silicate hydrates, aluminate-hydrates and gypsum can occur as secondary minerals. The solubility of such new phases and the solidification process determine the leaching characteristics of the ash mass.


Keywords: coal combustion by-products solubility; leachates from ash landfills; waste recycling


Investigations of hydrogen bonding in the poly(urethane-urea)-based membrane materials by using FTIR spectroscopy by Aleksandra Wolińska-Grabczyk; Bożena Kaczmarczyk; Andrzej Jankowski; (pp. 53-56).
FTIR analysis was used to study the hydrogen bonding in 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane-based segmented poly(urethane-urea)s varying in the length of the poly(tetramethylene oxide) (PTMO)-based soft segments. Experiments were designed to follow the IR absorption of both the NH and carbonyl regions as a function of temperature in order to directly investigate the extent and strength of the hydrogen bonds, and thereby to gain some information about the possible alteration of the initial phase-segregated morphology as a result of the applied thermal treatment.

Keywords: Infrared spectroscopy; hydrogen bonding; polyurethanes

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