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Mechanics of Composite Materials (v.34, #3)
Creep prediction of a layered fiberglass plastic by K. Aniskevich; J. Korsgaard; A. Mālmeisters; J. Jansons (pp. 213-222).
The results of short-term creep tests of a layered glass fiber/polyester resin plastic in tension at angles of 90, 70, and 45° to the direction of the principal fiber orientation are presented. The applicability of the principle of time-temperature analogy for the prediction of long-term creep of the composite and its structural components is revealed. The possibility of evaluating the viscoelastic properties of the composite from the properties of structural components is shown.
Investigations of interlaminar fracture toughness of laminated polymeric composites by A. Korjakin; R. Rikards; F. G. Buchholz; H. A. Richard; A. K. Bledzki; H. Wang (pp. 223-234).
The behavior of interlaminar fracture of fiber reinforced laminated polymeric composites has been investigated in modes I, II, and different mixed mode I/II ratios. The experimental investigations were carried out by using conventional beam specimens and the compound version of the CTS (compact tension shear) specimen. In this study, a compound version of the CTS specimen is used for the first time to determine the interlaminar fracture toughness of composites. In order to verify the results obtained by the CTS tests, conventional beam tests were also carried out. In the beam tests, specimens of double cantilever beam (DCB) and end notched flexure (ENF) were used to obtain the critical rates of the energy release for failure modes I and II. The CTS specimen is used to obtain different mixed mode ratios, from pure mode I to pure mode II, by varying the loading conditions. The highest mixed mode ratio obtained in the experiment was G I /G II =60. The data obtained from these tests were analyzed by the finite element method. The separated critical rates G I and G II of the energy release were calculated by using the modified virtual crack closure integral (MVCCI) method. The experimental investigations were performed on a unidirectional glass/epoxy composite. The results obtained by the beam and CTS tests were compared. It was found that the interlaminar fracture toughness G IC init of mode I at crack initiation and the corresponding value G II Cinit of mode II obtained by the conventional beam and the CTS tests were in rather good agreement. The experimental results of interlaminar fracture of mixed mode were used to obtain the parameters required for the failure criterion. The two different failure criteria were compared. The best correlation with the experimental data was obtained by using the failure criterion proposed by Wu in 1967 containing linear and quadratic terms of the rates of the energy release.
Experimental study of fracture toughness and energy in composite materials by S. R. Abdussalam; M. L. Ayari (pp. 235-242).
The paper presents an experimental investigation of fracture characteristics of composite materials. The post-peak response of the load-crack opening displacement of notched specimens is used to evaluate the fracture energy associated with progressive matrix damage and crack growth. Effects of fiber orientation and other geometric characteristics on fracture parameters are studied. The load versus crack opening displacement as well as crack length, fracture toughness, and energy versus the number of loading cycles are obtained for different specimens. Based on the experimental results of this study, concepts of the fracture mechanics are applied to evaluate the evolution of fracture toughness and energy.
Theories for laminated and sandwich plates by H. Altenbach (pp. 243-252).
The growing use of sandwich and laminated plates requires a theoretically based prediction of the mechanical behavior of structural elements of such type. Starting with the pioneering studies of Reissner, a great number of theories for the engineering calculations have been developed. The review deals with the classification of the theories and discusses some of them in detail.
Quasi-three-dimensional theory for solution of dynamic thermoelastic problem of laminated composite plates by O. N. Demchouk (pp. 253-262).
An uncoupled dynamic thermoelastic problem for laminated composite plates has been considered. The hypotheses used take into account the nonlinear distribution of temperature and displacements over the thickness of a laminated plate. On the basis of these hypotheses a quasi-three-dimensional (layerwise) theory is constructed that makes it possible to investigate the internal thermal and stress-strain states, as well as the edge effects of the boundary layer type for laminated plates. Systems of the heat conduction and motion equations are derived using the variational method. The order of the equations depends on the number of layers and terms in expansions of temperature and displacements of each layer. An analytical solution of the dynamic thermoelastic problem is presented for a cross-ply laminated rectangular plate with simply supported edges. The reliability of the results is confirmed by a comparison with the known exact solutions. The results based on the proposed theory can be used for verifying various two-dimensional plate theories when solving the dynamic thermoelastic problems for laminated composite plates.
Second-approximation shear theory for shallow layered shells and plates by V. G. Piskunov; A. A. Rasskazov (pp. 263-268).
Analysis of a second-approximation refined shear model for shallow layered composite shells and plates with a substantially inhomogeneous structure over the thickness is presented. The tangential displacements and corresponding normal stresses are expressed in the form of a polynomial of the fith degree in the transverse coordinate and contain squared rigidity characteristics. In this way, the accuracy of results and practical coincidence with the 3D solutions is ensured. Based on the refined model, a theory of shallow layered shells is developed. A system of resolving equations of sixteenth power together with appropriate boundary conditions was obtained and solved analytically. It is shown that the area of application of the formed model is extended as compared with the model of the first approximation. The model proposed allows us to examine the stress-strain state of layered composite structures of substantially different thickness and physical-mechanical characteristics of the layers, including the possibility of simulating relatively large shear deformations of rigid layers separated by a low-modulus thin interlayer pliable to transverse shear.
Structure analysis, fatigue testing, and lifetime prediction of composite steels by Yu. V. Sokolkin; A. A. Chekalkin; A. V. Babushkin (pp. 269-278).
Composite steels prepared by technology of powder metallurgy are widely used as low cost parts with good resistance to wear, fracture, and corrosion. The development of powder composite steels is directly related to strength under vibration, fatigue stabilizing, and accurate lifetime prediction for actual composite topology. The fatigue behavior of powder steels was studied by experimental and numerical methods of composite mechanics and materials sciences. The chemical composition of composite steel is a pure iron powder as the base material and a handful of carbon, chromium, nickel, or phosphorus powders. The powder multi-component mixture is compacted by cold isostatic pressing to a rectangular form. The compactants are sintered in protective atmosphere. The microscale examination of the composite structure included an METAM-RV-21 metallographic optic microscope with a high-resolution ScanNexIIc scanner and an image processing package on the PC platform. The phase composition of powder steels has complex disordered topology with irregular ferrite/austenite grains, iron carbide inclusions, and pores. The microstructure images are treated according to the theory of stochastic processes as ergodic probability functions; statistical moments and a structural covariance function of the composite steels are given. The microscale stress-strain state of the composite steel is analyzed by finite element methods. The stiffness matrix of the composite steel is also presented together with stiffness matrices of ferrite/austenite grains, iron carbide inclusions, and pores as zero matrices. Endurance limits of the microstructural components are described by the Basquin or Coffin-Manson laws, respectively, as high and low cycle fatigue; cumulative microdamage in loading with a variable amplitude is taken from the Palmgren-Miner rule. Planar specimens were tested by console bending. Symmetric fatigue cycling was performed at a stable frequency of 20 Hz with endurance limits up to 5·106 cycles. The probabilistic S-N curves were studied for various types of the composite steels. The fatigue properties of the structural components such as ferrite/austenite grains and carbide particles were defined by the microscale stress-strain modeling. Structural impact on the fatigue lifetime was computed; the probabilistic fatigue curves of the composite steels of various phase compositions are given. The prediction of cyclic lifetime and fatigue testing show good agreement for the powder composite steels studied.
Numerical identification of properties of particle-reinforced composite materials by V. Kushnevsky (pp. 279-284).
The paper deals with numerical identification of the average elastic properties of particle-reinforced composite materials. The finite element method for the determination of deformation energy of the characteristic volume element was used. In earlier analytical investigations, an approximation function of the averaged elastic properties of the composite was derived. An identification procedure allows the estimation of the unknown approximation parameters from numerical experiments. The obtained functions describe precisely the numerical data for any relationships between constituents of the material.
Effect of chemical nature of matrix on the strength of bonds with Armos aramide fibers by G. S. Shul'; Yu. A. Gorbatkina; G. P. Mashinskaya (pp. 285-294).
This investigation deals with adhesion between high-strength and high-modulus Armos aramide fibers (polyheteroarylene-co-p-phenyleneterephthalamide) and a series of different thermosetting matrices. The effect of the chemical nature of the matrix, time-temperature conditions of bond formation, and test temperature on the strength of the fiber-matrix interface was studied. Modified epoxy and heat-resistant matrices were used as adhesives. As a measure of adhesion, the shear adhesive strength τ0 determined by the fiber pull-out technique was used. It was found that both the adhesive strength and the fracture location in adhesive bonds depended on the nature of the matrix. At room temperature, chlorine-containing epoxy matrices provide the highest values of τ0, while the smallest strength of the interface is observed for bonds with heat-resistant (bismaleimide, oligomethacrylate) matrices. Fracture of adhesive bonds does not always occur at the fiber-matrix interface. A number of the specimens failed near the interface of the fiber. With temperature increase, the values of τ0 decrease. The adhesive strength falls especially drastically in the region of matrix softening. An advantage of heat-resistant matrices is that they retain 60–67% of τ0 value even at 250°C. The strength of unidirectional composites based on the investigated fibers and matrices was also estimated under different loading conditions such as tension, shear, compression, and bending. It was found that the strength in shear and compression did not correlate with the interface strength. The values of σc in bending and tension increased linearly with increase of τ0. The obtained dependences σc–τ0 were compared with those of composites based on the SVM polyheteroarylene fibers determined by us earlier.
Natural aging and dynamic mechanical properties of polymer matrices by I. I. Perepechko; Z. E. Tekutieva (pp. 295-298).
The influence of natural six-month aging at 293 K of two kinds of epoxy resins with different network density on their dynamical properties was studied. All the samples were examined by forced resonance oscillations at a frequency of 200 Hz in the range of 120–520 K. The components of the complex Young's modulus E′, E″, tan δ, and low-frequency velocity of sound were measured. The basic temperature transitions including Tg and the network density ν were determined from the experimental data. It was established that after aging of epoxy resins cured by the cross-linking agent meta-phenylenediamine their network density ν decreased (“cold” degradation). By using the cross-linking agent 2,6-diaminopyridine, ν and Tg increased. An attempt is made to explain the nature of this phenomenon.
Structure-sensitive liquid flowable compositions based on polyvinyl alcohol and silicotungstic acid by T. G. Lazareva; E. V. Vashuk (pp. 299-308).
Conditions of the formation of structure-sensitive liquid flowable media based on 1.5 and 10% aqueous solutions of polyvinyl alcohol containing silicotungstic acid and water-soluble carboxy-methylcellulose in the form of its potassium salt (Na-CMC) are examined. Rheological, optical, and dielectric relaxation methods revealed the formation of several types of interpolymer complexes in the examined liquid flowable media. This leads to the formation of associates and an increase in the molecular mobility of the macromolecules and their fragments. The structure and properties of the complexes depend on the composition of the media as well as the method of introducing polyacids. It was found that it was possible to control the structure of such solutions by applying a mechanical of magnetic field. The compositions obtained can be used for producing anisotropic light-, electric-, and heat-sensitive film materials, as well as sensors of different types.