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Biomaterials (v.26, #10)

Calendar (pp. i).

Theoretical analysis of calcium phosphate precipitation in simulated body fluid by Xiong Lu; Yang Leng (pp. 1097-1108).
The driving force and nucleation rate of calcium phosphate (Ca-P) precipitation in simulated body fluid (SBF) were analyzed based on the classical crystallization theory. SBF supersaturation with respect to hydroxyapatite (HA), octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and dicalcium phosphate (DCPD) was carefully calculated, considering all the association/dissociation reactions of related ion groups in SBF. The nucleation rates of Ca-P were calculated based on a kinetics model of heterogeneous nucleation. The analysis indicates that the nucleation rate of OCP is substantially higher than that of HA, while HA is most thermodynamically stable in SBF. The difference in nucleation rates between HA and OCP reduces with increasing pH in SBF. The HA nucleation rate is comparable with that of OCP when the pH value approaches 10. DCPD precipitation is thermodynamically impossible in normal SBF, unless calcium and phosphate ion concentrations of SBF increase. In such case, DCPD precipitation is the most likely because of its highest nucleation rates among Ca-P phases. We examined the influences of different SBF recipes, interfacial energies, contact angle and molecular volumes, and found that the parameter variations do not have significant impacts on analysis results. The effects of carbonate incorporation and calcium deficiency in HA were also estimated with available data. Generally, such apatite precipitations are more kinetically favorable than HA.

Keywords: Calcium phosphate; Simulated body fluid; Thermodynamics; Kinetics

Mechanistic aspects of in vitro fatigue-crack growth in dentin by J.J. Kruzic; R.K. Nalla; J.H. Kinney; R.O. Ritchie (pp. 1195-1204).
Although the propagation of fatigue cracks has been recognized as a problem of clinical significance in dentin, there have been few fracture mechanics-based studies that have investigated this issue. In the present study, in vitro cyclic fatigue experiments were conducted over a range of cyclic frequencies (1–50Hz) on elephant dentin in order to quantify fatigue-crack growth behavior from the perspective of understanding the mechanism of fatigue in dentin. Specifically, results obtained for crack extension rates along a direction parallel to the dentinal tubules were found to be well described by the stress-intensity range,ΔK, using a simple Paris power-law approach with exponents ranging from 12 to 32. Furthermore, a frequency dependence was observed for the crack-growth rates, with higher growth rates associated with lower frequencies. By using crack-growth experiments involving alternate cyclic and static loading, such fatigue-crack propagation was mechanistically determined to be the result of a “true? cyclic fatigue mechanism, and not simply a succession of static fracture events. Furthermore, based on the observed frequency dependence of fatigue-crack growth in dentin and observations of time-dependent crack blunting, a cyclic fatigue mechanism involving crack-tip blunting and re-sharpening is proposed. These results are deemed to be of importance for an improved understanding of fatigue-related failures in teeth.

Keywords: Dentin; Fatigue; Fracture mechanics; Crack propagation

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